Bourrat, P. (2021). Facts, Conventions, and the Levels of Selection. Cambridge University Press [link]
Online Appendix including Glossary available here.

Peer-reviewed journal articles

  1. Takacs P., Bourrat, P. (2021) Fitness: static or dynamic? European Journal for Philsoophy of Science, 11(4):112 [pdf]
  2. Bourrat, P. (in press) Function, persistence, and selection: Generalizing the selected-effect account of function adequately. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science [pdf]
  3. Bourrat, P., Doulcier, G., Rose, C., Rainey P. B., Hammerschmidt K. (preprint) Beyond Fitness Decoupling: Tradeoff-breaking during Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality. [link] Check out Guilhem thread with illustrations here.
  4. Bourrat, P., Griffiths, P. (in press) The Idea of Mismatch in Evolutionary Medicine. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science [link]
  5. Bourrat, P. (2021) Measuring Causal Invariance Formally. Entropy, 23(6):690 [pdf]
  6. Charbonneau M., Bourrat, P. (in press) Fidelity and the Grain Problem in Cultural Evolution. Synthese [pdf]
  7. Doulcier G., Takacs P., Bourrat P.* (2021) Taming Fitness: Organism-Environment Interdependencies Preclude Long-Term Fitness Forecasting. Bioessays, 4: 2000157. (*corresponding author) [pdf]
  8. Bourrat, P. (2021) Heritability, causal influence and locality. Synthese, 198: 6689-6715 [pdf]
  9. Bourrat P. (2021) Transitions in evolution: a formal analysis. Synthese, 198: 3699–3731 [pdf]
  10. Bourrat, P. (2020) Causation and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism heritability. Philosophy of Science, 87(5): 1073-1083 [pdf]
  11. Black A. J.,  Bourrat P.,  Rainey P. B. (2020) Ecological scaffolding and the evolution of individuality during the transition from cells to multicellular life.  Nature Ecology & Evolution, 4:426-436 [link]
  12. Bourrat P. (2020) Natural selection and the reference grain problem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 80: 1-8 [pdf]
  13. Bourrat P. (2019) In what sense can there be evolution by natural selection without perfect inheritance? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 32(1): 13-31 [pdf]
  14. Bourrat P. (2019) Evolutionary transitions in heritability and individuality. Theory in Biosciences, 138(2): 305-323 [pdf]
  15. Bourrat P. (2019) Evolution is about populations, but its causes are about individuals. Biological Theory, 14(4): 254-266 [pdf]
  16. Bourrat P. (2019) On Calcott’s permissive and instructive cause distinction. Biology and Philosophy, 34:1 [pdf] My response to Calcott’s response to this paper here
  17. Bourrat P. (2019) Variation of information as a measure of one-to-one causal specificity. European Journal for Philosophy of Science, 19:11 [pdf]
  18. Bourrat P. (2018) Have causal claims about the gut microbiome been
    over-hyped? BioEssays, 40(12) [pdf]
  19. Bourrat P. (2018) Natural selection and drift as individual-level causes of evolution. Acta Biotheoretica, 66(3): 159–176 [pdf]
  20. Bourrat P., Griffiths P. (2018) Multispecies individuals. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 40(2):33 [pdf]
  21. Lu Q., Bourrat P.* (2018) The evolutionary gene and the extended evolutionary synthesis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 69(3): 775–800 (* Equal first authors) [pdf]
  22. Bourrat P., Lu Q. (2017) Dissolving the missing heritability problem. Philosophy of Science, 84(5): 1055-1067 [pdf}
  23. Bourrat P., Lu Q., Jablonka E. (2017) Why the missing heritability might not be in the DNA. BioEssays, 39(7) [pdf]
  24. Bourrat P. (2017) Explaining drift from a deterministic setting. Biological Theory, 12(1): 27–38 [pdf]
  25. Lynch K.E. *, Bourrat P. * (2017) Interpreting heritability causally. Philosophy of Science, 84(1): 14-34 (* Equal first authors) [pdf]
  26. Bourrat P. (2016) Generalizing contextual analysis. Acta Biotheoretica, 64(2):197–217 [pdf]
  27. Bourrat P. (2015) Distinguishing natural selection from other evolutionary processes in the evolution of altruism. Biological Theory, 10(4):311-321 [pdf]
  28. Bourrat P. (2015) Levels, time and fitness in evolutionary transitions in individuality. Philosophy and Theory in Biology, 7 [pdf]
  29. Bourrat P. (2015) Levels of selection are artefacts of different temporal fitness measures. Ratio, 28(1): 40-50 [pdf]
  30. Bourrat P. (2015) How to read “heritability” in the recipe approach to natural selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 66 (4): 883-903 [pdf]
  31. Bourrat P. (2014) From survivors to replicators: Evolution by natural selection revisited. Biology and Philosophy, 29(4), 517-538 [pdf]
  32. Atkinson Q.D.*, Bourrat P.* (2011) Beliefs about God, the afterlife and morality support the role of supernatural policing in human cooperation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32(1): 41-49  (* Equal first authors) [pdf]
  33. Viciana H., Bourrat P. (2011) Is God an adaptation? Critcial notice of Robert Wright’s The Evolution of God, Little Brown, 2009. Philosophia,39(2): 397-408 [pdf]
  34. Bourrat P., Atkinson Q.D., Dunbar R.I.M. (2011) Supernatural punishment and individual social compliance across cultures. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 1(2): 119-134 [pdf]
  35. Bourrat P., Baumard N., McKay R. (2011). Surveillance cues enhance moral condemnation. Evolutionary Psychology9(2): 193-199 [pdf]

 Book chapters

  1. Doulcier G., Hammerschmidt K., Bourrat P.* (forthcoming) Life history tradeoffs, division of labor and evolutionary transitions in individuality. in Matthew D. Herron, Peter L. Conlin, and William C. Ratcliff (eds.) The evolution of multicellularity. CRC Press. [link] (*corresponding author)
  2. Bourrat P., Viciana H. (in press) Supernatural beliefs and the evolution of cooperation. in J. Liddle and T. Shackelford (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Religion. Oxford University Press [pdf]
  3. Bourrat P. (2015) Origins and evolution of religion from a Darwinian point of view: synthesis of different theories. in T. Heams, P. Huneman, G. Lecointre & M. Silberstein (eds.) Handbook of evolutionary thinking in the sciences. Springer  (pp 761-779) [pdf]
  4. Duncan M.*, Bourrat P.*, DeBerardinis J. *, O’Malley M.A. (2013) Small things, big consequences: microbiological perspectives on biology. in K. Kampourakis (eds.) Philosophical Issues in Biology Education. Springer (pp 373–394) (* Equal first authors) [pdf]
  5. Bourrat P. (2011) L’évolution de la religion d’un point de vue darwinien : synthèse des différentes théories. in T. Heams, P. Huneman, G. Lecointre & M. Silberstein (eds.) Les mondes darwiniens. L’évolution de l’évolution, Editions Materiologiques (pp 1225-1258) [pdf]

Encyclopedia entries

  1. Bourrat P. (2019) “Adaptations: Product of evolution”. Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. [pdf]
  2. Bourrat P. (2019) “Genetic relatedness”. Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. [pdf]
  3. Wilkins J.S., Bourrat P. (2018) “Replication and reproduction”. Stanford Encyplopedia of Philosophy. [link]
  4. Bourrat P. (2016) “Sélection naturelle”. L’encyclopédie Philosophique. [link]

Book Reviews

  1. Bourrat P. (2021). Review of Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb’s Inheritance Systems and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. BJPS Review of Books [link]
  2. Bourrat P. (2017). Review of Michaelis Michael’s Evolution by Natural Selection : Confidence, Evidence and the Gap, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 95(4): 816-819 [pdf]
  3. Bourrat P. (2017). Review of Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives, by S. Lidgard and L. K. Nyhart (eds.). Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews [link]


  1. Bourrat P. (2019) “Being Precise about Precision and One-to-one Specificity “. Response to Calcott’s response on my paper “On Calcott’s permissive and instructive cause distinction” [pdf]
  2. Bourrat P. (2013) “Testing more specific hypotheses and going beyond correlations in the origins and evolution of religious beliefs.” Comment on Ara Norenzayan’s Book Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict. International Cognition and Culture Institute.